What should be the length and the volume of a dissertation?

Currently, there is no strict regulation of the volume of the dissertation. But there are such conventions: PhD thesis in social sciences – 150 pages plus 30%, i.e. 200 pages. This does not include a list of sources and literature and applications. Doctoral – 300 pages + 30%, i.e. 400 pages. These informal settings and should be guided.

But defended thesis and a smaller volume. Once, the academic secretary of the dissertation council asked a staff member of the Higher Attestation Commission whether it was possible to accept a doctoral thesis with 280 pages. In principle, it is impossible to object here, since there are no official installations. The answer was concise, but convincing: if the work is ingenious, then it is possible.

Usually the work is typed in 2 intervals on a typewriter or 1.5 intervals in a computer, i.e. 27-30 lines per page. In line 65–70 strokes (counting letters and omissions). There were such rules: a text page should have a left margin (for binding) – 3 cm, a right one – 1 cm, upper and lower – 2 cm each. As a result, approximately 1800 characters appear on the page.

In most cases, we opposed the work in which the volume was large, often theses are printed on a computer after 1 interval – this is about 40 lines. Everything is individual – and the attitude of the author to his scientific offspring, and the attitude of scientists to his work.

All matters related to the assignment of a cherished degree are handled by a special state body – the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC). The rules that guide the Higher Attestation Commission when evaluating scientific work and the procedure for awarding scientific degrees can be found in a special government decree. A rather voluminous text is fully accessible by reference.

In short, the most important requirements are:

The results of the research should be qualified as a scientific achievement.

The dissertation for the degree of the author writes necessarily independently.

When borrowing someone else’s material, you need to provide links to the original.

In the doctoral it is necessary to bring the results of the practical application of the findings of the study. If the work is theoretical, recommendations should be made for their practical use.

Only dissertations are allowed for defense, excerpts and main theses from which it was possible to publish in advance in specialized publications.

The most important of the necessary requirements for scientific work for the degree of doctor is the compliance of its main scientific results with the task and practical benefits. If experts recognize that the conclusions can be considered a scientific achievement, then the years spent in preparing the dissertation work were not in vain.

Literature review for the dissertation: what is important?

Literature review for the dissertation- the first chapter of the thesis, containing data on the state of the scientific problem, in which the author of the dissertation plans to propose his solution. According to the content, it is analytical. In the course of work on a literature review, it is necessary to collect information from numerous sources of scientific medical information, assess current trends in the decision, and the degree of knowledge of the topic.

The ability to assess the independence of the applicant in graduate school or the applicant:

Often, a literature review is the first chapter that a supervisor requests when working with a potential candidate for a degree. Thus, it is possible to understand how a potential student is theoretically prepared, how he works with literature, whether he is able to analyze data, whether concentration has a core of thought.

The literature review helps clarify the topic of the dissertation work:

It so happens that initially the topic is formulated in general terms and the department only offers the medical specialist a scientific problem that he will need to work through. The topic will be clarified in the process of working on a review of literature for the thesis and directly when collecting research material when it becomes clear which points can be realized and covered in the thesis, and which remain only in the discharge of scientific thought.

Show the theoretical significance of a scientific problem:

“The material has already been collected, but there is no review yet” or “I did a review at the very beginning of my thesis and now it needs to be updated” – such phrases are often heard in our association. Often, the theses focus on the practical side of doing research but forget about the theoretical part of the thesis. This is an absolutely unsurprising situation, because for most doctors the fulfillment of a thesis is only a step of the career ladder, and many medical specialists do not have the opportunity to grasp the subtleties of the work methodology.

The risk to repeat the work of the predecessor and not to show scientific novelty:

Without a review of the literature, the author of the thesis risks repeating the work already completed, it threatens with the lack of scientific novelty, which fundamentally contradicts the basic requirement for the thesis – proposing a new solution to the existing problem, new elaboration of medical problems. What is it fraught with? The supervisor will not miss a thesis for approbation and as a result, at best, you will be forced to work through the available literature again, at worst, simply do not defend yourself or you will be sent next year.

How to write an argument essay?

In the essay, you must express your opinion on the formulated problem, agreeing or disagreeing with the position of the author, as written in part C of the task.


It is not enough to formally express your opinion: I agree (disagree) with the author. Your position, even if it coincides with the author, should be formulated in a separate sentence.

For example: Thus, the author seeks to convey to the reader the idea that nature has long needed the help of each of us. I fully agree with the author and also believe that humanity should reconsider its consumer attitude to nature.

Then your position must be supported by two arguments. In this part of the work, you must strictly follow the rules for constructing text-reasoning. Argumentation is the abduction of evidence, explanations, examples to substantiate any thought to the listeners (readers) or the interlocutor.

Arguments are evidence given in support of a thesis: facts, examples, statements, explanations — in short, everything that can confirm a thesis.

Giving arguments in an argument essay from the lives of others, you can write: -I remember, somehow, mother (father’s grandmother, friend, acquaintance, etc.) told how … -I think this incident convinces us that (remember which you have designated an author’s position, show that this example is its proof). If you bring your own conclusions and observations as an argument. You can use these phrases: – Of course, my life experience is still very small, but nevertheless, something similar happened in my life: OR: – Despite my rather modest life experience, I recall a similar situation when I (my friend, classmate, acquaintance) … Traditionally-historical experience allows you to refer to the authoritative opinion of any outstanding person, which will make your argument quite strong. Links to authority. It is often advantageous for persuasive to appeal to the “third party” – to refer to the opinion of an authoritative public figure, scientist, specialist in any field, to mention a proverb, saying, appealing to popular wisdom. The strength of such arguments is that using them, we turn to a collective stock of knowledge, which is always greater than that of individuals.

Research paper and its structure

Research paper consists of 3 main parts:

The work ends with a list of references and applications.

1. The introduction is the most important part of scientific work because here all the main points of your research are summarized, which you will substantiate in the main part. The introduction reflects the result of your work at the preparatory stage.

Introduction begins

from the justification of the choice of the research topic or the relevance of the chosen topic, which should occupy approximately 8-10% of the Introduction.

This should be followed by a degree of scientific elaboration of the problem. Here you have to demonstrate your level of knowledge of the material by listing known works of past and contemporary authors on this topic, assess the state of scientific knowledge in relation to the problem under investigation at a given point in time.

Of course, a student engaged in research and development activities does not always have the degree of awareness and scientific competence that would allow him to conduct truly innovative research. This should not be an obstacle to scientific research. The degree of development for a novice researcher is an opportunity to demonstrate his erudition and awareness, to create a basis for his scientific research, to make it a particular manifestation of the general scientific trend. Even if in practice it turns out that science has already fled far ahead, the value of your research will not be any lower. Firstly, because it will be your independent research (and the independence of your results will manifest itself against the background of the sources you analyzed), and secondly, it is quite possible that your “fresh” view of the problem that is not burdened by the existing standards of perception, will help you find her unexpected solution.

After consideration of the degree of scientific elaboration of the problem, the purpose and objectives of the study are formulated.

A goal is an image of an ideal result, the expected outcome of your research. The goal should be clearly and articulated, its wording should reflect as much as possible the general direction of your work. The purpose of the study, as a rule, contains the statements of the problem and the hypotheses of your work.

Tasks are “intermediate points” on the way to the goal. This is a listing of what needs to be done to achieve the desired result. The enumeration of tasks sets the plan and the internal logic of the text of your work.